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It was a deep felt realization for the need of ophthalmic research in the country that led to the inception of the Tilganga Institute. Its strong commitment to social values and the TIO’s dream to create a world class research facility in the country.

Tilganga Institute of ophthalmology is a leading organization in eye health research and contributing national and international community to do practice based on evidence. The research department of the TIO is leading the nation towards Excellence in Ophthalmic Research.

Acquisition and dissemination of knowledge has been one of the founding principles of Nepal Eye Program. We  always strive to share the rich knowledge and experience acquired at our research through services, products and academic and training activities.

Within the short period of time when research department has initiated the work, about century research projects were implemented and more than 125 research papers have been published in national and international indexing journal.


Research Department 2021 Output

Total project 2021: 42
Completed project 2021: 30
Handed over to 2022: 12
Research Publication 2021: 33
Research studies till 2021: 279
Research publication till 2021: 280


Research Paper Published in 2021

  1. Oli, R. U., Poudel, M., Hazel, Y. P., Manandhar, A., Shrestha, M. K., & Gurung, R. (2021). Female Clients Satisfaction towards Primary and Secondary Eye Health Facilities and Cost of Eye Care in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology13(2), 186-189.
  2. Amatya, Malita, Ben Limbu, Purnima Rajkarnikar Sthapit, Hom Bahadur Gurung, and Rohit Saiju. "Outcome of Injection Botulinum Toxin in Blepharospasm." Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology: a Biannual Peer-reviewed Academic Journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society: NEPJOPH 13, no. 25 (2021): 40-49.
  3. Sthapit, P. R., Amatya, M., Gurung, H. B., & Saiju, R. (2021). Clinicopathologic Presentation and Management of Malignant Orbito-ocular Tumors at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology13(2), 11-20.
  4. Bhandari, R. D., Khanal, B., Poudel, M., Shrestha, M. K., & Thapa, S. S. (2021). Glaucoma Screening in Family Members of Glaucoma Patients at a Tertiary Eye Hospital in Eastern Region of Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology13(2), 128-136.
  5. Manandhar, Anu, and Buddhi Prasad Paudyal. "Clinicodemographic pattern and treatment outcome of Behcet’s disease cases presenting in a tertiary eye center of Nepal." International ophthalmology 41.8 (2021): 2861-2868.
  6. Bhandari, S., Poudel, M., Paudyal, I., Joshi, P. L., Shrestha, C., Paudyal, G., & Pradhan, E. (2021). Treatment outcomes of retinal vein occlusion in clinical practice in Nepal. BMC ophthalmology21(1), 1-9.
  7. Xue, Jiayin, John Hinkle, Mary-Grace Reeves, Luo Luo Zheng, Vengadesan Natarajan, Shyam Vyas, Radhika Upreti Oli et al. "A cost comparison of cataract surgeries in three countries—United States, India, and Nepal." NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery 2, no. 9 (2021).
  8. Thapa, Raba, Sanyam Bajimaya, Eli Pradhan, Sanjita Sharma, Bal Bahadur Kshetri, Manish Paudel, and Govinda Paudyal. "Agreement and Diagnostic Test Accuracy on Grading Diabetic Retinopathy Using Fundus Photographs by Allied Medical Personnel at a Community Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program in Nepal." Ophthalmic Epidemiology (2021): 1-7.
  9. Rasaily, Suresh BK, Kaushal Pokharel, Sulaxmi Katuwal, Sabita Bishowkarma, Ben Limbu, and Rohit Saiju. "External Dacryocystorhinostomy and Patient Satisfaction: Perspective of General Ophthalmologist." Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology 13, no. 2 (2021): 21-29.
  10. Pokhrel, K., Bajracharya, L., & Bade, A. R. (2021). A Case Report on Eye Worm, Thelazia callipaeda, in an Elderly Person in Nepal. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, 1-5.
  11. Sthapit, Purnima Rajkarnikar, and Rohit Saiju. "Ocular involvement in metastatic and systemic malignancies is not rare." Cancer Reports (2021): e1347.
  12. Upadhyay, M. P., Kharel Sitaula, R., Manandhar, A., Gower, E. W., Karki, P., Gurung, H., ... & Joshi, S. N. (2021). The Risk Factors of Seasonal Hyperacute Panuveitis. Ophthalmic Epidemiology28(3), 250-257.
  13. Subedi, K., Shrestha, S. and Manandhar, A., 2021. Pattern of ocular sarcoidosis at a tertiary eye center in Nepal. Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences4(1).
  14. Pradhan, Eli. "Guidelines to Author, Copyright Transfer Statement, Patient Consent Form for Case Report, Acknowledgement." Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology 13, no. 2 (2021): 237-242.
  15. Bhattarai, Madhur Dev, Raba Thapa, Manil R. Bajracharya, Lochan Karki, Budda B. Karki, and Alark D. Rajouria. "Fundus Photography as the Base of Three-Tier Diabetic Retinopathy Care System to Its Wider Roles: Learning from a Case Experience." JNMA: Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 59, no. 233 (2021): 100.
  16. Adhikari, S., Bajimaya, S., & Ranjitkar, E. P. (2021). Validation of smartphone-based screening for retinopathy of prematurity in a low-resource setting. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus25(5), 274-e1.
  17. Upreti, Radhika. "Primary eye care in Nepal: current situation and recommendations for integration." Eye Health 34, no. 111 (2021): 12.
  18. Khatri, Anadi, Eli Pradhan, Bal Kumar Kc, Muna Kharel, Roshija Khanal Rijal, Satish Timalsena, Jeena Gurung, Sudhir Gautam, and Ashma Kc. "Detection, localization, and characterization of vision-threatening features of microaneurysms using optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic maculopathy." European journal of ophthalmology 31, no. 3 (2021): 1208-1215.
  19. Adhikari, Srijana, Ellen Bernadette Maria Elsman, Ruth Marie Antoinette van Nispen, Fleur van Rens, Radhika Upreti Oli, Suman S. Thapa, and Gerardus Hermanus Maria Bartholomeus van Rens. "Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of a Nepali version of the Dutch Participation and Activity Inventory for Children and Youth (PAI-CY) with visual impairment." Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes 5, no. 1 (2021): 1-9.
  20. Thapa, S.S., Paudyal, I., Joshi, P.L., Singh, K. and Parajuli, A., 2021. Glaucoma in Developing Countries. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology: a Biannual Peer-reviewed Academic Journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society: NEPJOPH13(25), pp.112-121.
  21. Rasaily S, Bishowkarma S, Limbu B, Saiju R. Sebaceous gland carcinoma of eyelid in young boy: A rare case report and review of literature. IAR Journal of Medical Case Reports. 2021 May 20;2(3).
  22. Subedi, Kumudini, Smita Shrestha, and Anu Manandhar. "Bilateral post typhoid retinitis: A case report and literature review." Journal of National Medical College 6.1 (2021): 46-49.
  23. Rasaily, Suresh, Sabita Bishowkarma, Ben Limbu, and Rohit Saiju. "A Young Boy with Orbital Angioleiomyoma: A Rare Case Report." IAR Journal of Medical Case Reports 2, no. 2 (2021).
  24. Rijal, R.K., Mourya, D., Bajimaya, S. and Srivastava, A.K., 2021. Trend of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Dispensing Technique in Nepal. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology13(2), pp.190-195.
  25. Rana, R. S., & Gurung, R. (2021). A Case of Acute Gonococcal Conjunctivitis in an Unusual Age Group. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology: a Biannual Peer-reviewed Academic Journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society: NEPJOPH13(25), 137-140.
  26. Pant, A. R., Suwal, R., Joshi, P., Shrestha, N., & Limbu, B. (2021). Conventional versus Modified Tarso-frontalis Suspension Surgery using Targeted Lid Crease for Simple Congenital Blepharoptosis with Poor Levator Action. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology13(2), 30-38.
  27. Olivieri, Daniel J., Raba Thapa, and Paul B. Greenberg. "Increasing local engagement in global eye care policy." Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology (2021): 1-2.
  28. Rana, Rachana Singh, Leena Bajracharya, and Reeta Gurung. "Recurrence of Avellino Corneal Dystrophy Following Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Case Report." Journal of the Nepal Medical Association 59, no. 236 (2021).
  29. Gurung, Hom Bahadur, Purnima Rajkarnikar Sthapit, and Saiju Rohit. "Globe salvaging conservative management of Retinoblastoma."
  30. Pant, S.R., Awasthi, S., Bhatta, R.C., Poudel, M. and Shrestha, M.K., 2021. Refractive Error Among Public and Private School Children in Dhangadhi City of Far West Nepal. Journal of Ophthalmology and Research4(2), pp.174-182.
  31. Rasaily, S.B., Limbu, B., Saiju, R. and Kathmandu, N., 2021. Optimal Management of Orbital Blowout Fracture with Limited Available Resources: A 5 Years’ Experience from Nepal.
  32. Khatri, A., Pandey, A., Joshi, K., Singh, K., Prasai, G., Pradhan, E., & Agrawal, R. (2021). Redefining response in wet AMD to anti VEGF therapy based on non-OCTA versus OCTA evaluation. European journal of ophthalmology, 11206721211059349.
  33. Chen, Jimmy S., Aaron S. Coyner, Susan Ostmo, Kemal Sonmez, Sanyam Bajimaya, Eli Pradhan, Nita Valikodath et al. "Deep Learning for the Diagnosis of Stage in Retinopathy of Prematurity: Accuracy and Generalizability across Populations and Cameras." Ophthalmology Retina (2021).